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Data was collected from several sources. GISS used Thomas Smith and Richard Reynolds’ satellite analysis of global sea surface temperatures [url=http://www.boutiqueofficielpsg.fr/maillot-psg-moussa-sissako.html]Maillot Moussa Sissako[/url] , which they collected for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. GISS also used its own research regarding global average temperatures.
GISS conducted research from 1951 to 1980 for baseline research and found that during that time frame, the global average surface air temperature was .79 degrees above the global mean. As the study approached 2008, it found that most of the globe was either normal or warmer. Eurasia, the Arctic, and the Antarctic Peninsula were especially warm. The study also found that the Pacific Ocean region was much cooler. This area of cooling materialized due to La Niña.
La Niña is produced by relatively low temperatures in the tropical Pacific. In 2008 [url=http://www.boutiqueofficielpsg.fr/maillot-psg-loic-mbe-soh.html]Maillot Loic Mbe Soh[/url] , La Niña conditions were strong in the first half of the year, which led to the cooling. While La Niña is a cooling phase, El Niño is a warming phase that produces the opposite effect and follows La Niña after a year or so. The two occurrences are both a part of the natural oscillation of equatorial Pacific Ocean temperatures.
In 2008, the United States’ temperatures were almost the same as they were in the baseline research, which led climatologists to conclude that it was cooler than previous years [url=http://www.boutiqueofficielpsg.fr/maillot-psg-garissone-innocent.html]Maillot Garissone Innocent[/url] , as there had previously been a heating trend. While this is something to consider, the United States in only a small part of the study, and the entire earth’s temperature must be considered.
James Hansen, the director of GISS, predicted that a new global surface air temperature record would be set despite the cooling effect that was produced in 2008. He suspected this because it was widely thought that 2010 would bring the next El Niño. Since the sun was passing though solar minimum [url=http://www.boutiqueofficielpsg.fr/maillot-psg-juan-bernat.html]Maillot Juan Bernat[/url] , it was transmitting a small amount of radiant energy toward Earth all year round. While his predictions were founded in science, it turns out that Hansen’s forecast was not completely accurate, as a strong El Niño has not occurred since 1998. The scientific community now predicts the next strong El Niño will materialize in 2015.
GISS also uses data from the Global Historical Climatology Network of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Climate Data Center. They analyze the global surface temperature and the earth’s heating and cooling patterns using satellite analysis. The NOAA’s Richard Reynolds and Thomas Smith have been keeping records of global sea surface temperatures for years. All of Reynolds and Smith’s data help GISS record and analyze global temperatures through the years.
Hansen also said that GISS’s data and analysis is in high demand from journalists who want to report on the current state of global warming. The ranking of global temperatures allow the public to easily understand how temperatures are changing and the consequences it can have on all of us. Hansen warns that that data can also be misleading, and stated that the global average is more important than the yearly rankings.
<"http:www.giss.nasa.govresearchnews20090223">Learn more about NASA and GISS’ climate research and how it affects the earth’s cooling and heating.
Clarence Seedorf's era at AC Milan got off to a winning start on Sunday as his side beat Verona 1-0 at San Siro thanks to Mario Balotelli's penalty kick.
Balotelli converted the penalty in the 82nd minute, after Alejandro Gonzalez clumsily fouled Kaka.
Seedorf [url=http://www.boutiqueofficielpsg.fr/maillot-psg-thilo-kehrer.html]Maillot Thilo Kehrer[/url] , who played at Milan from 2002 to 2012, was appointed this week to replace the sacked Massimiliano Allegri, cut a happy figure the win which saw Robinho's second-half shot deflected onto the post.
"I am happy for the squad, as there is a lot of work to do and a win makes it all feel easier," he said.
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"This victory came at the end with a penalty, but I still believe it was deserved considering the performance over 90 minutes," he said.
Napoli were held 2-2 at Bologna, as Rolando Bianchi's stoppage-time strike rescued a draw for the 10-man hosts.
Bianchi latched on an Alessandro Diamanti's assist to open the scoring in the 37th minute, before Napoli flexed their muscle in the second half.
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Bologna's Panagiotis Kone was sent off for a second bookable offence in the 84th minute, but Bianchi was still able to claim a crucial point for his struggling side.
Napoli head coach Rafa Benitez conceded his side are still missing something.
"I believe Napoli's campaign is very positive. Of course we can improve and this game shows we are still missing something," he said.
"Did you expect Juventus to get 55 points? Last season at this stage Juve had 45 points, so we are on track. Napoli have had a very good season, but Juventus and Roma have done better [url=http://www.boutiqueofficielpsg.fr/maillot-psg-moussa-diaby.html]Maillot Moussa Diaby[/url] ," he said.
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